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GoodRelations - The Web Vocabulary for E-Commerce

This is the archive of the goodrelations dicussion list

GoodRelations is a standardized vocabulary for product, price, and company data that can (1) be embedded into existing static and dynamic Web pages and that (2) can be processed by other computers. This increases the visibility of your products and services in the latest generation of search engines, recommender systems, and other novel applications.

[goodrelations] Defining material types

Martin Hepp martin.hepp at ebusiness-unibw.org
Tue Nov 26 18:25:13 CET 2013

Hi David:

First, you need a property for the "material" relationship between a product and its material.

You could either define one yourself in your own namespace, as described here:


# Defining the property
    a owl:ObjectProperty ;
    rdfs:domain gr:ProductOrService ;
    rdfs:range schema:Thing ;
    rdfs:subPropertyOf gr:qualitativeProductOrServiceProperty .

Or you could reuse one from other GoodRelations extensions from this list:


e.g. the FreeClassOWL ontology at


has the property

    http://www.freeclass.eu/freeclass_v1.html#P_E67 ("base material").

Then you need to model the material. You CANNOT directly use www.productontology.org URIs, like


since such URIs designate the *class* of all instances of concrete (in this sense: particles), but you need an individual (in OWL) to express "concrete" as a type of material.

The most straightforward way is using DBPedia URIs whenever you need individuals and www.productontology.org URIs when you need types or classes.

The full pattern would be

# Describing a product

@prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> .
@prefix pto: <http://www.productontology.org/id/> .
@prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> .
@prefix foo: <http://example.com/> .

foo:ConcreteTube a gr:ProductOrService, gr:Individual ;
	a pto:Tube_(fluid_conveyance) ; # It is a tube
	gr:name "A single tube made from concrete" ;
	foo:material dbpedia:Concrete. # It is made from concrete.

That should do the trick.

We will consider adding a madeOf or material property to GoodRelations and propose it to schema.org.


On Nov 26, 2013, at 5:53 PM, David Deering wrote:

> I have been doing some research and so far have been unable to find the answer, so I am hoping that I might be able to get some help here.  My question is: Is there a way to define a product's material type, such as glass, stone, wood, etc?  I have searched schema.org, GoodRelations, and investigated using productontology.org, but none seem to provide a means to define the property of product material. Wikipedia does not, for example, have a page for "glass vase", so it would seem that for that particular case, the productontology markup would not work.  Unless the markup can somehow be extended?  Does anyone have any thoughts or advice?  It would be greatly appreciated.  Thanks.
> David
> _______________________________________________
> goodrelations mailing list
> goodrelations at ebusiness-unibw.org
> http://ebusiness-unibw.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/goodrelations

martin hepp
e-business & web science research group
universitaet der bundeswehr muenchen

e-mail:  hepp at ebusiness-unibw.org
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fax:     +49-(0)89-6004-4620
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         http://www.heppnetz.de/ (personal)
skype:   mfhepp 
twitter: mfhepp

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